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Ming Dynasty Qi Learning in the Philosophies of Luo Qinshun, Wang Tingxiang and Liu Zongzhou

Vol. 49 No. 1  3/2019

Title

Ming Dynasty Qi Learning in the Philosophies of Luo Qinshun, Wang Tingxiang and Liu Zongzhou

Author

Chen Chia-ming

Genre

Article

Pages

87-123

Download

PDF

Language

Chinese

Key words

Zhu Xi 朱熹, Luo Qinshun 羅欽順, Wang Tingxiang 王廷相, Liu Zongzhou劉宗周, qi-centered discourse

Abstract

    This article explores the philosophical meaning of qi 氣 in Neo-Confucianism through an analysis of the positions advanced by Luo Qinshun羅欽順, Wang Tingxiang王廷相 and Liu Zongzhou劉宗周. It moreover discusses whether their theories of qi can provide a foundation for Confucian moral philosophy.

    First, it is argued here that Luo Qinshun did not discard Zhu Xi’s朱熹system, and that he advanced the idea that “principle and qi are united” (理氣一物) to solve the problem of Zhu Xi’s principle-qi dualism (理氣二元). Second, Wang Tingxiang’s philosophy is identified as a qi-centered discourse (氣本論) as his conception of qi tends toward materiality. And third, the article maintains that Liu Zongzhou’s notion of qi is not physical but spiritual, and thus his theory of qi is properly classified as one in which “qi and mind flow together” (心氣流行). Finally, the article concludes that qi cannot serve as the source of morality (道德之源), and that a moral philosophy based in qi would provide insufficient moral motivation (道德動力).

 

Author: Chen Chia-ming
Genre: Article
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