Vol. 49 No. 3 9/2019
Title 
Numbers and Mathematics in the Zhouyi shilun hebian, tuxiang jibiao: A Preliminary Study of the “Jishu gai” 
Author 
Lee Chungta 
Genre 
Article 
Pages 
399436 
DOI 
10.6503/THJCS.201909_49(3).0001 
Download 

Language 
Chinese 
Key words 
Zhouyi shilun hebian周易時論合編, Tuxiang jibiao圖象幾表, mathematics, imagenumber symbolism, inner calculation and outer calculation 
Abstract 
The Zhouyi shilun hebian 周易時論合編, compiled in the midseventeenth century, collected together large amounts of earlier research on astronomy, musicology, medicine, physics and mathematics. The text not only reveals the Chinese interest in natural science, but also the belief among Chinese mathematicians and scientists that the Zhouyi 周易 had perfectly rendered visible Nature’s truth. The study of numbers in China was perceived to have had two functions: an innercalculation (neisuan 內算), which concerned both the ability to be numinous and illuminating (shenming 神明) and to comply with one’s Nature and Destiny (xingming 性命); and an outercalculation (waisuan 外算), which dealt with practical problems involving the application of certain mathematical methods. The idea that both inner and outer calculations, two subsets of numerical learning, originated with the Zhouyi inspired Chinese mathematicians to study the metaphysics of the Zhouyi and its numerology, which since antiquity was thought to have held the keys to predicting the future. In depicting and interpreting Zhouyi images, the Tuxiang jibiao圖象幾表, found at the beginning of the Zhouyi shilun hebian, made use of traditional mathematical knowledge and the imagenumber symbolism of the Zhouyi to express a combined worldview that did not treat natural sciences and numerology as distinct systems of thought. 